Here are some simple some tools for examining papers.
Copy/move clone detection in pictures: There is no single button solution. To extract the pictures I use unar (“brew install unar”) which preserves much more detail than a screenshot. As web-based solution Forensically is preferable (alternatives are Fotoforensics and Reveal). As a local version, I think Sherloq has most potential if you don’t want to fiddle around with exiftool.
A short history of detecting image forgery can be found at the Zwelling blog and an introduction into the theory in a paper by Hany Farid or his book “Fake Photos“. A recent interview with Elisabeth Bik gives further details.
PubPeer is the place where the results should be deposited.
“There is currently worldwide concern over corruption in education. This concern touches all Member States and all levels of education” according to the European Counsil.