It might be fun to read here on a genetics board about DNA (Direct Note Access) which is a technology implemented in Melodyne that can extract notes from polyphonic music.
So far, it does not use a library of musical instruments according Peter Neubäcker, head of development, in an interview published in c’t 8/2008, p 34. It separates “musical content” defined by periodicity, similar overtones and meaningful musical distance like halftones. Although that’s something bioinformatics is trying for some while for DNA (desoxyribonucleic acid), I wonder if the decomposition concept in DNA would works also for DNA, yea, yea.