Schlagwort-Archive: farming

Innate immunity is species-, individual, organ-specific

In a previous paper I have questioned if LPS

nanogram exposure on the pulmonary epithelium will supersede the gram-wise exposure on the gut mucosa.

This may indeed work as now shown by Eyal Raz in a commentary in Nature Immunology where previous TLR studies

typically reproduce the splenic version of innate immunity (the spleen is used here as a metaphor for the sterile internal environment).

In the lung only the alveolar space is thought to be sterile while macrophages should not be in a constant state of activation (as inflammation would compromise gas exchange).

There are now several indicators for a lung-specific regulation of innate immunity: TLR9 is expressed in human plasmacytoid dendritic cells while TLR4 is only on myeloid DCs; TGFB-ß mediated crosstalk between alveolar macrophages and epithelial cells seems to be unique in the lung; in addition indeolamine induction or surfactant production is not found elsewhere. Yea, yea.

Is “vitamin” D a biological hub?

Folllowing up numerous emails to my recent review about allergy and vitamin D exposure, I wonder if there could be a quantitative relationship if we look at the vitamin D system as a major biological hub. This is not so much about connecting different playgrounds but of integrating signals (as shown in the hourglass blog). The East-West German difference, the farming studies as well as numerous other studies would even allow a quantitative effect. Yea, yea.

Addendum

Biospektrum will publish in their next issue a summary of the vitamin D story.

Addendum

4-07-2007 The list of vitamin D dependent genes that are associated with allergy (IL12B, IL12RB, SPP/OPN, CD14, CD23, VDR, TNF, GC, IFN, IL1RN, IL8, ADRB2, CARD15, IL4R, ALOX5, FLG, SOCS3) is expanding: TSLP and CD86