Tag Archives: mouse-model

We are the model organisms

Genomeweb today reports Sidney Brenner (Nobel Prize winner 2002 and pioneer in the use of Caenorhabditis elegans as a model organism) speaking on a conference. These days he’s pushing a new model organism: humans.

“We don’t have to look for a model organism anymore,” Brenner said. “Because we are the model organisms.”

Where is the asthma gene?

A new paper – the second bioinfomatics approach following the groundbreaking work by Perez-Iratxeta – is now coming up with some interesting remarks beyond IL-13 and TGF-ß1 Continue reading Where is the asthma gene?

On mice and men with asthma

A new series of pro- and con editorials in the Am J Res Crit Care Med discusses the question why in some instances mouse models have “misdirected resources and thinking”. You may have noticed that I have only rarely used animals for research; the authors of this editorial have collected empirical data on the exploding use of murine models. Despite their attractiveness from a technological point, they are useless because

  • mice do not have asthma as even the most hyperresponsive strain does not show spontaneous symptoms
  • mice do not have allergy – although sensitization can be manipulated by high intraperitoneal allergen/adjuvant injection, this does not involve immediate and late airway obstruction.
  • immune reaction in mice is quite different – the interfering of some substances like vitamin D cannot be reliable tested, there is no pure Th1 and Th2 reaction in human and less stronger IL-13 response
  • mice typically can not be challenged with the complex (and interacting) human exposure – oxidant stress, viral infection, obesity, diet, smoke, pollutants, ….
  • time course is difficult to mimicking in the mouse, there is no longterm model
  • structure of mouse airways is different – there are fewer airway generations, much less hypertrophy of smooth muscle
  • inflammation in mouse is parenchymal rather than restricted
  • humans are outbred, mice are inbred
  • many promising interventions of mice pathways failed in humans (VLA-4, IL4, IL5, bradykinine, PAF,…)

I am sure there are even more arguments – I suggest that the authors have deserved the Felix-Wankel price.

Addendum

15 Dec 06: The BMJ has 6 more examples about the discordance between animal and human studies: steroids in acute head injury, antifibrinolytics in haemorrhage, thrombolysis or tirilazad treatment in acure ischaemic stroke, antenatal steroids to prevent RDS and biphosphonate to treat osteoporosis.
19 Dec 06: Another pitfall paper
31 Dec 06: A blog on animal welfare
25 Apr 07: Call for better mouse models